Dear Bharat, your face shines like the moon; Chandrayaan-3 Landing Success, History - Chandrayaan-3 Landing Updates

Now the world will look at India and say, 'Dear Bharat, your face shines like the moon'. Day and night, without food or sleep, ISRO researchers' efforts have finally been successful on the lunar surface. India became the first country to achieve this feat when the Chandrayaan 3 probe performed a soft landing on the Moon's South Pole. The image of India is no longer that of waiting with cattle for space technology in front of the world powers, but our India is now a country that has achieved an advantage that even the US, China and the Soviet Union could not achieve.


On 23 - 08 - 2023 at 6.03 pm Chandrayaan 3 landed on the South Pole of the Moon. So far, India has stepped into a dangerous area where no spacecraft has been able to perform a soft landing.After landing, the signal from the lander reached the Mission Operations Complex under ISRO's Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network in Bengaluru. The researchers, including ISRO Chairman S. Somnath, who led the mission, clapped their hands in jubilation, hugged each other and many had tears in their eyes. The image of the moon shone proudly on the chests of 140 crore Indian people.


Journey Into History


India's Chandrayaan 3 probe consisted of a lander named Vikram and a rover named Pragyan. It also had a propulsion module. Chandrayaan 2's lander and rover had the same name. India's most powerful Mark 3 (LVM 3) rocket took off from Sriharikota on July 14, and the probe began orbiting the Earth the same day. The probe was travelling in an elliptical orbit.


Then, using the fuel in the propulsion module, the probe was lifted into orbit around the Earth in 5 stages. The first hike was on July 15. Later, the orbit was raised on July 17, 18, 20 and 25. The spacecraft entered lunar orbit on August 1.It entered the Moon's gravitational field on August 5. There, starting with an ellipse, the diameter was reduced and the orbit was lowered in five stages. The first orbital descent was on August 6. Later on August 10th, 14th and 20th. After reaching an altitude of 100 km above the lunar surface, the probe switched to a circular orbit.


All this time, the propulsion module provided the probe with the necessary fuel to move. But on August 17, the lander separated from the propulsion module. On August 18 and the following days, the lander was phased into a closer orbit to the Moon.Since August 10, the probe's cameras have started sending various pictures of the lunar surface. From August 19, more films started arriving. On August 20, Chandrayaan 3 reached the closest orbit of the moon at 25 km and at the furthest 134 km. Then wait for landing.


All is safe and secure; Finally a historic


Waiting for sunlight to reach the landing site on August 23rd. Meanwhile, researchers at the Mission Operations Complex, including the probe's internal components, had checked and evaluated it. It was decided to shift the landing to August 27 if there was any problem. But it didn't work. At 12.52 pm, ISRO tweeted – “All preparations for the start of Automatic Landing Sequence (ALS) have been completed. It is now waiting for the lander of Chandrayaan 3 to arrive at the predetermined position by 5.44 pm.


As decided, the landing process started on August 23 at 5.44 pm. ISRO researchers termed this as 17 minutes of excitation. The command on how to land had already been sent to the lander through India's Deep Space Network (IDSN). All subsequent processes were as per that command.


The first step was to bring the lander to an altitude of 30 km above the lunar surface. Power reached breaking point there. All four thruster engines started working together. A technique called retro firing has been used here. Instead of providing energy to propel the spacecraft forward, the rocket worked in the opposite direction. With that the speed of the lander decreased. Gradually, this speed was reduced.


It was during this time that the Moon's gravitational force was applied with all its force towards the probe. But the engines kept firing at the correct ratio and controlling the speed. The probe, which was moving horizontally on the lunar surface, had already started moving vertically. It was at this point that Chandrayaan 2 lost control and crashed into the lunar surface. That is why the operation was done with utmost care.


Thus the spacecraft reached a height of 6.8 km. Two engines were stopped there. Without losing control, the spacecraft began to descend slowly. The probe was pushed backwards due to the 'reverse thrust' from the two engines. So gradually it reached 150-100 metres. It was there that the cameras and sensors to scan the lunar surface worked. The landing site is checked for any obstructions, hills, pits or inclines. A safe landing spot has been found. A soft landing was made there on four legs.


Soon the lander's panel opened and the rover stepped out. Chandrayaan's 41-day journey ends at the South Pole with a signal from the rover. The life of the rover is 14 days on Earth. That is one lunar day. After that the sunlight will disappear in the landing area. It will be dark. The temperature will drop to minus 180 degree. If the rover can withstand this cold for 14 days, then the rover can work again. S. Somnath said that if you are lucky it will happen.


The signal will go from the rover to the lander and from there to the propulsion module. From there, the signal will reach the Mission Operations Complex. Chandrayaan 2's orbiter can be used if there is any communication problem. Although Chandrayaan 2 failed in September 2019, the orbiter is still orbiting the moon.The lander successfully communicated with it the previous day. In case of emergency, the signal can be transmitted from the lander to the earth through the orbiter.



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